VIENNA (AP) - Iran has revealed the existence of a secret uranium-enrichment plant, the International Atomic Energy Agency said Friday, a development that could heighten fears about Tehran's ability to produce a nuclear weapon and escalate its diplomatic confrontation with the West. President Barack Obama and the leaders of France and Britain accuse Iran of hiding the facility in an address at the opening of the G-20 economic summit Friday, a senior White House official told the AP.
September 23-24, 2009
President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad in a speech to the United Nations on September 23, 2009 predicted the downfall of the current economic system, championed the cause of Palestinians and called for a return to monotheistic morality during his address to the United Nations General Assembly Wednesday evening. However, the 35-minute speech was less pointedly confrontational than his previous statements before the body.
“Our nation is prepared to warmly shake all those hands which are honestly extended to us,” Mr. Ahmadinejad said, according to an English interpretation, proclaiming his country’s “commitment to participate in the process of building durable peace and security” around the world.
UNITED NATIONS, Sept 23 (Reuters) - U.S. President Barack Obama said he and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev agreed on Wednesday that serious additional sanctions must be considered if Iran does not respond to proposals to end a nuclear standoff.
Foreign ministers from the five permanent U.N. Security Council members -- the United States, Russia, Britain, France and China -- and a German official were gathering at the United Nations to continue discussions about Iran's nuclear program, which the West suspects is aimed at developing atomic weapons.
President Nicolas Sarkozy on Wednesday said Iran should be given three months to engage in fruitful talks with leading world powers over its nuclear programme or face fresh sanctions.
Senior officials from France, Britain, Germany, the US, China and Russia will hold talks with Iranian representatives on October 1 in the latest bid to break the deadlock over Iran’s nuclear ambitions.
BEIJING — China will not support increased sanctions on Iran as a way to curb its nuclear program, a government spokeswoman said Thursday.
Although China has generally opposed the use of sanctions, the announcement is sure to complicate President Obama’s efforts to impose tougher penalties on Iran, should international talks over Tehran’s nuclear ambitions, scheduled for Oct. 1, fail to make headway.
“We always believe that sanctions and pressure are not the way out,” said Jiang Yu, a foreign ministry spokeswoman, during a news conference. “At present, it is not conducive to diplomatic efforts.”
TEHRAN (Reuters) -- A senior female member of Iran's leading reformist party has been detained, a pro-reform website has reported, signaling further pressure on the opposition after the Islamic republic's disputed June election.
Azar Mansuri, deputy head of the Mosharekat party, was detained on September 15 by intelligence agents in the town of Varamin southeast of Tehran while on her way home, the Norooz website said.
Mosharekat leader Mohsen Mirdamadi and other key party members were detained in the days after the June 12 presidential election, which plunged Iran into a deep internal crisis.
Maziar Bahari, 42, an Iranian-Canadian journalistwas released on bail Saturday after spending nearly four months in jail following his June 21 arrest while covering the unrest following the disputed Iranian presidential election.
October 18, 2009
A suicide bomber blew himself up Sunday at a conference between Shiite and Sunni groups in Sarbaz in southeastern Iran. The dead included five senior officials of Iran's elite Revolutionary Guard Corps.
Gen. Mohammad Pakpour, commander of the corps ground force promised a "crushing response" against organizers of the attack as Iranians began three days of mourning for the victims, Press TV reported.
The Pakistan-based separatist group Jundallah claimed responsibility for the attack, saying it was fighting for the rights of Sunni Muslims, Press TV reported Monday.
Pakpour predicted the attack would unite Iranian Shiites and Sunnis. Pakpour's statement came as Iranian leaders stepped up accusations that the United States and Pakistan were linked to Jundallah, which the U.S. State Department has denied, CNN reported Monday.
Iranian investigators alleged they had documents linking Jundallah leader Abdulmalik Rigi to Pakistani and U.S. security forces, CNN reported.
480 BCE Start of the second Persian war: Xerxes leads a huge combined land and invasion against Greece. At the Battle of Thermopylae, the Persian advance is delayed by the Spartans under King Leonidas I.
The Greek and Persian fleets battle inconclusively for two consecative days off Cape Artemisium. The Persians march south to capture Athens.
In the Bay of Salamis, Themistocles with an armada of 483 Greek ships; with "Greek fire" ships ram into the larger Persian vessels, setting them on fire and winning the battle.
479 BCE Xerxes returns to Sardis leaving Mardonius in change of the army.
Mardonius conquers central Greece but is unsuccessful in gaining an alliance with Athens. He is killed and his army defeated at the Battle of Plataea.
The Greeks defeat the Persians again at Mycale, destroying the last of the Persian fleet.
A Greek fleet under Pausanias captures Cyprus, then sails to the Hellespont to seize Byzantium.
478 BCE The Delian League is founded to drive the Persians from previously Greek holdings in Asia Minor. A Greek fleet under the command of the Spartan General Pausanias, the winner of Platæa, takes Cyprus, then Byzantium.
475 BCE The city of Eion falls. Its Persian garrison were besieged since the previous year by the Athenians led by Cimon.
466 BCE Battle of Eurymedon. The Persians are defeated by Cimon of Athen in a naval battle off the Eurymedon River in Asia Minor.
465 BCE Artaxerxes becomes king of Persia after his father, Xerxes, is assassinated.
Themistocles accused of 'Medising' is given asylum in Persia.
460 BCE Athens supports a rebellion that captures Memphis, the capital of Egypt. The Persian garrison however holds out for 4 years until an army arrives from Persia. The Athenians withdraw to an island in the Nile and held out for two years.
Pericles becomes head of the Athenian State. Pericles preferred to make peace with Persians and oppose Spartans.
454 BCE Artaxerxes I reconquered Egypt.
450 BCE Cimon leads 200 ships against Persians in Egypt and Cyprus. Cimon dies in battle, no further large scale battles between Delian League and Persians.
448 BCE The Greco-Persian War came to end with the "Peace of Callias".
431 BCE War begins between Sparta and Athens.
424 BCE Death of Artaxerxes. Palace intrigues lead to the successive assassinations of two of his sons, Xerxes II and Sogdianos.
Eventually a third of his sons takes hold under the name of Darius II.
407 BCE Cyrus, younger son of Darius II, King of Persia, is named Satrap of Asia Minor in replacement of Tissaphernes. Cyrus is instructed to support Sparta and helps finance Lysander's fleet, eventually contributing to the victory of Sparta.
404 BCE Death of Darius II, king of Persia. He is succeeded by his son Artaxerxes II.
Sparta conclusively defeats Athens, and takes control of the Athenian State.
401 BCE Cyrus is killed by his elder brother Artaxerxes II at the Battle of Cunaxa near Babylon. Last mention of gerhon or spara shielded infantry in Persian army.
399 BCE Sparta sends forces to Ionia to protect them from Persians.
Trial and death of Socrates.
395 BCE Start of Corinthian War. Persians stir up Athens, Argos, Corinth & Thebes to revolt against Sparta.
394 BCE Persian fleet defeats the Spartan fleet off Cnidus and begin to overthrow Greeks from the Aegean.
390 BCE Rome is captured and burned by the Gauls under the leadership of the chieftain Brennius.
385 BCE Pelopidas leads an uprising in Thebes against the Spartans, supportedby Athens.
382 BCE Sparta invades Thebes.
371 BCE The Thebans,led by Epaminondas,conclusively defeat the Spartans, ending their domination of the Aegean altogether.
369 BCE Athens becomes an ally of Sparta against Thebes.
362 BCE The Theban general Epaminondas is killed at Battle of Mantinea.
359 BCE Phillip II is crowned king of Macedonia.
356 BCE Alexander III (the Great) is born in Macedonia, to Phillip II and Olympias.
359 BCE Death of Artaxerxes II, king of Persia at more than 90. After more palace struggle and assassinations, one of his sons, succeeds him under the name Artaxerxes III.
343 BCE Artaxerxes III reconquers Egypt
338 BCE Death of Artaxerxes III, poisoned by the eunuch Bagoas. He is succeeded by his son Oarses.
Phillip II of Macedonia decisively beats a comnbined force of Athenians and Thebens at the Battle of Chaironeia.
336 BCE Phillip II is assassinated. His son Alexander assumes the throne.
Death of Oarses, poisoned, like his father, by the eunuch Bagoas. He is succeeded by his cousin, a great-grandson of Darius II,who becomes king under the name Darius III.
334 BCE Alexander crosses into Asia at Gallipoli and defeats a Persian army at the river Granikos.
333 BCE Darius III of Persia is beaten decisively by Alexander at the Battle of Issus.
332 BCE Alexander besieges and then captures both. He goes on to conquer Babylon.
327 BCE Alexander captures and burns the Persian capital of Persepolis.
559 BCE Cyrus II (the Great) assumes throne of Ashan (western Persia) and begins sunjugation of all Persia.
550 BCE Cyrus defeats the Median King Astyages at the battle of Pasargadai and becomes the king of both kingdoms.
547 BCE Persians clash with the Lydians at the Battle of Pteria.
546 BCE Croesus of Lydia retires to Sardis but the Persians unexpectedly followup. Croesus hastily reassembles a even larger allied army and meets Cyrus on the Plain of Thymbra.
The Lydian army is routed and the city falls after a short seige. Persia now rules Ionia. The tyrant Peisistratus seizes power at Athens.
545 BCE Cyrus now expands eastward. He reconquers most of Parthia, Sogdiana, Bactria and Arachosia which were attempting to establish their independence.
540 BC Cyrus defeats Bedouin sheikhs around Teima.
Polycrates the tyrant of Samos, allies with Egypt, defies Persia and builds a fleet of 100 ships.
539 BCE Cyrus II of Persia invades and conquers Babylon and Phoenicia.
538 BCE Cyrus occupies Jerusalem & allows the Jews of Babylon to return home if they wish.
533 BCE Cyrus crosses the Hindu Kush and receives tribute from the Indian cities of the Indus valley and establishes the twentith satrapy of Gandhara.
530 BCE Cyrus is killed in a campaign against the Massagatae of central Asia and so his son Cambyses is crowned king of Persia.
529 BCE Cyrus' tomb is erected at Pasargadae the capital city of Persia.
525 BCE Cambyses defeats the Egyptian king Psamtik III at Pelusium.
521 BCE Cambyses dies or is murdered, and is succeeded by his brother Smerdis. Smerdis is then overthrown, Darius I takes the throne.
520 BCE Darius begins a campaign against the Scythians. Darius commissions the completetion of the canal joining the Nile to the Red Sea began by Necho II 610 BC.
519 BCE Darius has the great rock-face of Behistan constructed, on the Ecbatana-Babylon Road, to give an account of his early successes. The cuneiform inscritions in 3 langauages lead Sir Henry Rawlinson to decipher cuneiform writing.
Darius puts down a second revolt in Babylon.
518 BCE Darius sends Scylax, a Carian, on a voyage of discovery into the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea.
517 BCE Darius visits Egypt, which he lists as a rebel country, and puts its satrap, Aryandes to death. He sets priests and wisemen the task of codification of Egyptian laws. The task takes 15 years.
515 BCE Darius completes the canal from the Nile to the Red Sea began by the Egyptian King Necho II in 610 BC. Darius sends Scylax, a Carian, on a voyage of discovery into the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea. He established a sea route between India and Persia.
513 BCE Darius leads a campaign into southeast Europe, by building a bridge of boats across the Bosporus river.
510 BCE The tyranny at Athens comes to an end.
509 BCE A democratic constitution is proposed by Kleisthenes, and is adopted at Athens.
501 BCE Megabates with a Persian naval fleet of 200 tiremes attack Naxos with the support of the Ionians under Aristagoras.
500 BCE Darius I completes or expands the Royal Road of Persians.
499 BCE The Ionian revolt. The Greek cities of the Ionian coast under the leadership of Aristagoras, ruler of Miletus, plus the island of Cyprus, led by Onesilus--revolt against the Persians.
498 BCE Sparta does not respond, but Athens and Eretria support the Ionians by sending troops & ships to attack Sardis.
The city captured without opposition and burnt, but the Persians still hold the central stronghold.
496 BCE Darius soon recaptures Cyprus with the help of the Phoenician navy.
494 BCE A Persian fleet destroys the Greek fleet at the Battle of Lade.
493 BCE Ionian revolt ends when Miletos is sacked by Persians.
492 BCE Mardonius leads a naval expedition against Greece. Thrace and Macedon are subjugated but Mardonius is injured in a night attack by the Thracians. The Persian fleet is destroyed by a storm while trying to round Mount Athos.
490 BCE Persians under the command of Artaphernes and Datis sack Eretria. Persians are defeated at the Battle of Marathon by an Athenian army led by Miltiades.
486 BCE Egypt revolts from Persian rule. The death of Darius I, (the Great), he is succeeded by his son Xerxes.
484 BCE Xerxes subdues the revolt in Egypt.
483 BC E Xerxes resumes preparations for the invasion of Greece. He orders a canal to be cut through the promontory at Mt Athos. Begins the construction of two floating pontoon bridges across the Hellespont.
482 BCE Xerxes reconquers Babylon after the city revolts. Its walls & temples are razed and the statue of its patron god Marduk is melted down.
481 BCE Athens and Sparta found the Hellenic League against the Persians.
Iran has launched its first domestically made satellite into orbit from a Safir-2 rocket.
Speaking on the 30th anniversary of the Islamic revolution in Iran, President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad says he would welcome talks with the US as long as they are based on "mutual respect".
Obama offers Iran 'new beginning.
Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei tells anti-Israel rally that US President Obama is following the "same misguided track" in Middle East as President Bush.
British navy personnel, seized by Iran in March, are freed after a meeting with President Ahmadnejad.
An Iranian court finds Iranian-American journalist Roxana Saberi guilty of spying for the US. She is sentenced to eight years in prison.
Diplomats have walked out of a speech by Ahmadinejad at a UN anti-racism conference after he described Israel as a 'racist government'
Iran rejects a US state department report saying it remains the "most active state sponsor of terrorism" in the world.
Jailed Iranian-American journalist Roxana Saberi is freed and returns to US.
Four candidates are accepted by the Guardian Council to run as president for Iran. Mir Hossein Mousavi, a former Prime Minister of Iran is the major opponent to Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.
President debate occurs several days prior to the election.
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad is declared to have won a resounding victory in the 12 June presidential election.
Ahmadinejad declaration as the winner of presidential election brought thousands of supporters of the rival Moussavi onto the streets
The rival candidates challenge the result, alleging vote-rigging. Their supporters take to the streets, and at least 30 people are killed and more than 1,000 arrested in the wave of protests that follow.
The Iranian authorities claim foreign interference is stoking the unrest, and single out Britain for criticism.
Security forces use tear gas on protesters
The footage of the death of Neda Agha-Soltan drew international attention after she was killed during the 2009 Iranian election protests.
British Embassy workers seized in Iran.
Partial recount validates vote and reconfirms Ahmadinejad president.
President Ahmadinejad dismisses his most senior vice-president, Esfandiar Rahim Mashaie, under pressure to do so by Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei.
Protests over Iranian crackdown occur globally.
Three U.S. tourists held by Iranian government.
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad sworn in for second term as president, presents cabinet - the first since the founding of the Islamic Republic in 1979 to include women.
Protests in Iran as Ahmadinejad endorsed continue.
A number of senior opposition figures are accused of conspiring with foreign powers to organise unrest and are put on trial.
Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei says there is no proof that opposition leaders blamed for the post-election unrest were agents of foreign powers.
2002 In his January State of the Union speech, American President George W. Bush refers to Iran as part of an "axis of evil," saying the country is actively pursuing weapons of mass destruction. The speech is met with anger in Iran. Iranian Foreign Minister Kamal Kharrazi responds by calling President Bush's comments "arrogant" and saying Iran sees them as "interference in its internal affairs."
2003 The International Atomic Energy Agency says Iran admits to plutonium production, but the agency says there is no evidence that Iran is developing nuclear weapons. Iran agrees to more rigorous U.N. inspections of nuclear facilities.
2004 Conservatives reclaim control of Iran's parliament after controversial elections that were boycotted by reformists. Iran's government says it will consider re-starting its nuclear program.
2005 Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, the hardline Islamic mayor of Tehran, who campaigned as a champion of the poor and pledged to return to the values of the revolution of 1979, defeats one of Iran's elder statesmen in presidential elections.
2006 Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad sends a letter to President Bush calling for ways to ease tensions over Iran's nuclear program, but continues to defy U.N. deadlines to halt uranium enrichment activities. Ahmadinejad insists the nuclear program is for civilian energy purposes only.
2007 Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad visits the United States, and accuses Israel of occupation and racism during a speech to the U.N. General Assembly.
The United States announces new economic sanctions against Iran targeted to impact the country's military and halt Tehran's disputed nuclear program.
A U.S. National Intelligence Estimate report finds that Iran stopped developing nuclear weapons in 2003, but continues to enrich uranium and could still develop atomic arms in the future.
2008 The International Atomic Energy Agency releases a report saying Iran's suspected research into the development of nuclear weapons remained "a matter of serious concern." European Union nations agree to impose new sanctions against Iran.
1989 February Indian author Salman Rushdie’s book The Satanic Verses causes uproar among fundamentalist Muslims, and Ayatollah Khomeini places a fatwa (religious edict) on the writer, saying his book is "blasphemous against Islam." The ayatollah calls on all "zealous Muslims" to kill Rushdie, placing a $3 million bounty on his head.
June Khomeini dies. An elected body of senior clerics -- the Assembly of Experts -- chooses the outgoing president of the Islamic Republic, Ali Khamenei, to succeed Khomeini as the national religious leader.
August Ali Akbar Hashemi-Rafsanjani, the speaker of the National Assembly, becomes president. Rafsanjani was an influential member of the Council of Revolution of Iran in the Islamic Republic’s early days.
1993 Rafsanjani wins reelection.
1995 The United States places oil and trade sanctions on Iran, accusing the country of sponsoring terrorism, committing human rights abuses and seeking to sabotage the Arab-Israeli peace process.
1997 (Ali) Mohammad Khatami-Ardakani is elected to the presidency in a landslide victory amidst his pledges of political and social reforms as well as economic revitalization.
2000 Pro-reform candidates and allies of President Khatami win 189 of the 290 seats in parliament, setting the stage for reformers to control the legislature for the first time since the 1979 Islamic revolution. Conservatives win 54 seats, independents 42 and another five seats are reserved for religious minorities.
1979 January 16 The shah flees Iran amid intensifying unrest.
February 1 Islamic nationalist Ayatollah Khomeini returns from France, where he was exiled for his opposition to the shah's regime. He encourages the brewing revolution.
April 1 Under Ayatollah Khomeini's guidance, Iran declares itself a theocratic republic guided by Islamic principles, and a referendum is held to name it the Islamic Republic of Iran.
November 4 Islamic students storm the U.S. Embassy in Tehran, taking hostage 52 American employees and demand that the shah return from receiving medical treatment in the United States to face trial in Iran. Ayatollah Khomeini applauds their actions. The hostage situation ignites a crisis between the United States and Iran.
April Iran and the United States sever diplomatic ties over the hostage crisis, and the U.S. Embassy becomes a training ground for the Revolutionary Guards Corps.
July The shah dies in exile in Egypt.
September Iraq invades Iran after years of disagreements over territory, most notably the Shatt al Arab waterway. When Iraqi President Saddam Hussein announces his intention to reclaim the Shatt al Arab, an eight-year war breaks out.
Following negotiations mediated by Algeria, the U.S. hostages are released after 444 days of captivity.
1985 The United States covertly seeks to sell arms to Iran in exchange for the release of seven American hostages being held by Iranian-backed militants in Lebanon, prompting the Iran-Contra scandal.
1988 July An American navy ship, the USS Vincennes, shoots down an Iranian civilian plane, killing all 290 passengers and the crew. The United States later apologizes and agrees to financial compensation for the victims families, saying the civilian plane was mistaken for an attacking military jet.
August Iran accepts United Nations Security Council Resolution 598, leading to a cease-fire in the Iran-Iraq War.