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Other than Marie Curie, little is known about women scientists. Ruth Lewin Sime, author of Lise Meitner: A Life in Physics, discusses the life of Meitner, a pioneer in nuclear physics and the epic story behind her co-discovery of nuclear fission.
Sime, Ruth Lewin. Lise Meitner: A Life in Physics (University of California Press, 1997).
Lise Meitner (1878-1968) was a pioneer of nuclear physics and co-discoverer, with Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann, of nuclear fission. Braving the sexism of the scientific world, she joined the prestigious Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry and became a prominent member of the international physics community. Of Jewish origin, Meitner fled Nazi Germany for Stockholm in 1938 and later moved to Cambridge, England. Her career was shattered when she fled Germany, and her scientific reputation was damaged when Hahn took full credit--and the 1944 Nobel Prize--for the work they had done together on nuclear fission. Ruth Sime's absorbing book is the definitive biography of Lise Meitner, the story of a brilliant woman whose extraordinary life illustrates not only the dramatic scientific progress but also the injustice and destruction that have marked the twentieth century.
At the outbreak of World War II, the Netherlands, just as it did during World War I, declared itself neutral. Nonethess, the Germans invaded the country on May 10, 1940. They believed that by controlling Dutch territory they would draw attention from their position in Ardennes, force British and French troops deeper into Belgium, and stop a possible British invasion of North Holland. In addtion, the Luftwaffe, was in need of airfields near the North Sea Coast, which they would gain by the invasion.
(1928- ) Houshang Ebtehaj was born in 1928 in Rasht, North of Iran. He published his first book when he was only 19 years old. He chose ‘Sayeh' /sa:yeh/ as his pen name, which means ‘shadow' / ‘shade'. Ebtehaj was active in different literary movements and gatherings and took considerable part in various literary magazines such as Sokhan and Kavian.
After the 1979 Iranian Revolution, Sayeh spent some time in prison for his ideas. He has several works in poetry almost all of which are well-known in the world of Persian literature. In his poems, he is shown as a highly motivated person in love, who has gone through years of pain and suffering. He also worked and did some meaningful researches on Hafez poems that is of high value.
O joy! O liberty! O joy of liberty! When you return, What shall I do With this melancholy heart?
Our sorrow is heavy, Our hearts are bleeding, Blood spurts from our heads to our feet, From head to foot we are wounded, From head to foot we are bloody, From head to foot we are all pain. We have exposed our loving heart to hazards For your sake.
When the tongue feared the lip, When the pen doubted the paper, Even, even our recollection dreaded to speak during dreams, We used to engrave your name in our heart Like an image on turquoise.
When in that dark street, Night followed night, And the horror of its silence Crashed on the closed window, We spread your voice like spurting blood Like a stone thrown in the swamp On the roof and at the door.
When the deceit of the beast, Disguised in Solomon's garment, Wore the ring on his finger, We used to rhyme your secret, like God's mightiest name In poetry and ode.
We spoke of Wine, of flower, of morning, Of mirror, of flight, Of Phoenix, of the sun.
We spoke of light, of goodness, Of wisdom, of love, Of faith, of hope.
That bird that journeyed in the cloud, That seed in the ground that grow into a lawn, That light that danced in the mirror, And murmured to our heart's solitude, Spoke of meeting you at every breath.
In the school, in the market, In the mosque, in the town square, In jail, in chains, We murmured your name: Liberty!, Liberty! Liberty!
Those nights, those nights, those nights, Those dark and horrible nights, Those nights of nightmare, Those nights of tyranny, Those nights of faith, Those nights of shouting, Those nights of patience and awakenings, We sought you in the street, We called your name on the roofs: Liberty!, Liberty! Liberty!
I said: "When you return I will lift my young heart Like the banner of victory, And will hoist The bloody banner On your lofty roof.
I said: "On the day that you return, I will strew this blossoming blood, Like a bouquet of rose, At your foot; And will hang My rolling arms Around your proud neck.
O liberty! See! Liberty! This carpet lying under your foot, Is dyed with blood. This flower garlands is made of blood, It is the flower of blood...
O liberty! You come through the alley of blood, But You will come and I tremble in my heart: What is this which is concealed in your hand? What is this which is twisted around your leg? O liberty! Are you Coming With chains?...
Behind this lofty mountain, Beside the pale sea, There was a girl with whom I was madly in love. As if Gali Had been created That I should love her fervently, And she should love me sweetly...
And you know O silent stars! How happy we were, Me and she were drunk in the sweet sleep of hope, And what pure happiness Laughed in my eyes and hers...
And now, O coy maidens, If you aren't dumb, Open your mouths And say what happened from that calumny? What happened to this clouded spring!
And between me and she, Now lies this vast plain, Now this long way, And this lofty mountain...