Indian surgeons sewed facial lacerations by using bone needles threaded with human hair. They set bones in plasters made of down feathers, gum, resin, and rubber. They gave enemas with rubber hoses, and they invented the bulbed syringe for use in a variety of medical treatments…European doctors quickly adopted both the rubber hose and syringe and continue to use them today.
Indian healers lanced boils and removed tumors by surgery. Surgeons amputated limbs, prescribed artificial legs, removed teeth and castrated men and animals...they mastered the application and use of tourniquets and cauterization.
Jack Weatherford, Indian Givers, 188